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Paper Published on Sensors 2021

The paper “Moment-to-Moment Continuous Attention Fluctuation Monitoring through Consumer-Grade EEG Device”, authored by Shan Zhang, Zihan Yan, Shardul Sapkota, Shengdong Zhao and Wei Tsang Ooi has been published on Sensors 2021 – an open access journal by MDPI.

Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3419;


While numerous studies have explored using various sensing techniques to measure attention states, moment-to-moment attention fluctuation measurement is unavailable. To bridge this gap, we applied a novel paradigm in psychology, the gradual-onset continuous performance task (gradCPT), to collect the ground truth of attention states. GradCPT allows for the precise labeling of attention fluctuation on an 800 ms time scale. We then developed a new technique for measuring continuous attention fluctuation, based on a machine learning approach that uses the spectral properties of EEG signals as the main features. We demonstrated that, even using a consumer grade EEG device, the detection accuracy of moment-to-moment attention fluctuations was 73.49%. Next, we empirically validated our technique in a video learning scenario and found that our technique match with the classification obtained through thought probes, with an average F1 score of 0.77. Our results suggest the effectiveness of using gradCPT as a ground truth labeling method and the feasibility of using consumer-grade EEG devices for continuous attention fluctuation detection.

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